Worm Würmer


Each body segment has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetaewhich are made Worm Würmer chitin. As such, polychaetes are sometimes referred to as bristle worms. More than 10, species are described Worm Würmer this class.

Common representatives include the lugworm Arenicola marina and the sandworm or clam worm Alitta. Polychaetes as a class are robust and widespread, with species that live in the coldest ocean temperatures of the abyssal plainto forms which tolerate the extremely high temperatures near hydrothermal vents.

Polychaetes occur throughout the Earth's oceans at all depths, from forms that live as plankton near the surface, to a 2- to 3-cm specimen still unclassified observed Worm Würmer the read more ocean Worm Würmer Nereus at the bottom of the Challenger Deepthe deepest known spot in click at this page Earth's oceans.

Polychaetes are segmented worms, generally less than 10 cm 4 in in length, although ranging at the extremes from 1 mm 0. They can Worm Würmer be brightly coloured, and may be iridescent or even luminescent. Each segment bears a pair of paddle-like and highly vascularized parapodiawhich are used for movement and, in many species, act as the worm's primary respiratory surfaces.

Bundles of bristles, called setaeproject from the parapodia. However, polychaetes Worm Würmer widely from this generalised pattern, Worm Würmer can display a range of different body forms. The most generalised polychaetes are those that crawl along the bottom, but others have adapted to many different ecological nichesincluding burrowing, swimming, pelagic life, tube-dwelling or Worm Würmer, commensalismand parasitismrequiring various modifications to their body structures.

The head, or prostomiumis relatively well developed, compared with Worm Würmer annelids. It projects forward over the mouth, which therefore lies on the animal's underside. The head normally includes two to four pair of eyes, although some species are blind. These are typically fairly simple structures, capable of distinguishing only light and dark, although some species have large eyes with lenses that may be capable Worm Würmer more sophisticated vision.

The head also includes a pair of antennaetentacle-like palpsand Worm Würmer pair of pits lined Worm Würmer ciliaknown as "nuchal organs". Worm Würmer latter appear to be chemoreceptorsand help the Worm Würmer to seek out food. The outer surface of the body wall consists of a simple columnar Ton von der Schnecke covered by a thin cuticle.

Underneath this, in order, Worm Würmer a thin layer of connective tissue, a layer of circular muscle, a layer of longitudinal muscle, and a peritoneum surrounding the body cavity. Additional oblique muscles move the parapodia.

In most species the body cavity is divided into separate compartments by sheets of peritoneum between each segment, but in some Worm Würmer it's more continuous. The mouth of polychaetes is located on the peristomiumthe segment behind the Worm Würmerand varies in form depending on their diets, since the group includes predators, herbivores, filter feeders, scavengers, and parasites.

In Worm Würmer, however, they possess a pair of jaws and a pharynx that can be rapidly everted, allowing the worms to grab food Worm Würmer pull it Worm Würmer their mouths. In some species, the pharynx learn more here modified into a lengthy proboscis.

The digestive tract is a simple tube, usually Worm Würmer a stomach part way along. The smallest species, and those adapted to burrowing, lack gillsbreathing only through their body surfaces. Worm Würmer other species have external gills, often associated with the parapodia. A simple but well-developed circulatory system is usually present. The two main blood vessels furnish smaller vessels to supply Worm Würmer parapodia and the gut.

Blood flows forward in the dorsal vessel, above the gut, and returns down the body in the ventral vessel, beneath the gut. The blood vessels themselves are contractile, helping Worm Würmer push the blood along, so most species Worm Würmer no need of a heart.

In a few cases, however, muscular pumps analogous to a heart are found in various parts of the system. Conversely, some species have little or Worm Würmer circulatory system at all, transporting oxygen in the coelomic fluid that fills their body cavities.

The blood may be colourless, or have any of three different respiratory pigments. The most common of these is haemoglobinbut some groups Worm Würmer haemerythrin or the green-coloured chlorocruorininstead. The nervous system consists Worm Würmer a single or double ventral nerve cord running the length of the body, with ganglia and a series of small nerves in each segment. The brain is relatively large, compared Worm Würmer that of other annelids, and lies in the upper part of the head.

An endocrine gland is attached to the ventral posterior surface of the brain, and appears to be involved in reproductive activity. In addition to the sensory organs on the head, photosensitive eye spots, statocystsand numerous additional sensory Worm Würmer endings, most likely in involved with the sense of touch, also occur on the body.

Polychaetes have a varying number of protonephridia or metanephridia for excreting waste, which in some cases can be relatively complex in Worm Würmer. The body also Worm Würmer greenish "chloragogen" tissue, similar to that found in oligochaeteswhich appears to function in metabolism, in a similar fashion to that of the vertebrate Worm Würmer. The cuticle is constructed from cross-linked fibres of collagen and may be  nm to 13 mm Worm Würmer. Their jaws are formed from sclerotised collagen, and their setae from sclerotised chitin.

Polychaetes are extremely variable in both form and Worm Würmer, and include a few taxa that swim among the plankton or above the abyssal plain. Most burrow or build tubes in the sediment, and some live Bandwurm, wie loswerden commensals.

A few are parasitic. The mobile forms Errantia tend to have well-developed sense organs and jaws, while the stationary forms Sedentaria lack them, but may have specialized gills or tentacles used for respiration and deposit Worm Würmer filter feeding, e.

Underwater polychaetes Worm Würmer eversible mouthparts used to capture prey. Some have even evolved cutaneous Worm Würmer for aerial gas Worm Würmer. Most polychaetes have separate sexes, rather than being hermaphroditic. The most primitive species have a pair of gonads Worm Würmer every segment, but most species exhibit some degree of specialisation. The gonads shed immature Worm Würmer directly into the body cavity, where they complete their development.

Once mature, the gametes are shed into the surrounding water through Worm Würmer or openings that vary Worm Würmer species, or in some cases by the complete rupture of the body wall and subsequent death of the adult.

Source few species copulatebut most fertilize their eggs externally. The fertilized eggs typically hatch into Worm Würmer larvae, which float among the Worm Würmerand eventually metamorphose into the adult just click for source by Worm Würmer segments.

A few species have no larval form, with the egg hatching into a form resembling the Worm Würmer, and in many that do have larvae, the trochophore never feeds, surviving off the yolk that remains from the egg. Some polychaetes exhibit remarkable reproductive strategies. Some species in the genus Eunicie reproduce by epitoky. For Worm Würmer of the year, these worms look like any other burrow-dwelling polychaete, but as the breeding season approaches, the worm undergoes a remarkable transformation as new, specialized segments begin to grow from its Arten von Würmern in Welpen end until the worm can be clearly divided into two halves.

The front half, the atoke, is asexual. The new rear half, responsible for breeding, is known as the epitoke. Each of the epitoke segments is packed with eggs and sperm and features a single eyespot on its surface. The beginning of the last lunar quarter is the cue for these animals to breed, and the epitokes break free from the atokes and float Worm Würmer the surface. The eye spots sense when the epitoke reaches the surface and the segments from millions of worms burst, releasing their eggs and sperm into the water.

Another strange strategy is employed by the deep sea worm Syllis ramosa which lives inside a sponge. The rear end of the worm develops into a "stolon" containing the eggs or sperm, and this Worm Würmer becomes detached from the parent worm, and rises to the sea surface where fertilisation takes place. Stem-group polychaete fossils are known from the Sirius Passet Lagerstättea rich, sedimentary deposit in Worm Würmer tentatively dated to the late Atdabanian early Cambrian.

Wiwaxialong interpreted as an annelid, [12] is now considered to represent a mollusc. Being soft-bodied Worm Würmerthe fossil record of polychaetes is dominated by their fossilized jaws, known as scolecodontsand the mineralized tubes that some of them secrete.

Worm Würmer cuticle does have some preservation potential; Worm Würmer tends to survive for at least 30 days Worm Würmer a polychaete's death.

Taxonomically, polychaetes are thought to be paraphyletic[18] meaning the group excludes some descendants of its most recent common ancestor. Groups that may be descended from the polychaetes include the oligochaetes earthworms and leechessipunculansand echiurans.

The Pogonophora and Vestimentifera were once considered separate phyla, but are now classified in the polychaete Worm Würmer Siboglinidae. Older classifications recognize many more sub orders than the layout presented here. Worm Würmer comparatively few polychaete taxa have been subject to cladistic Worm Würmer, some groups which are usually considered invalid today may eventually be reinstated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List Worm Würmer Annelid families.

Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 9 August Implications for the ancestral molluscan radula". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Estonian Journal of Worm Würmer Sciences.

The direction of evolution within the Polychaeta. Retrieved from " https: Polychaetes Extant Worm Würmer first appearances. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. This page was last edited on 3 Aprilat By using this site, you agree to the Terms Worm Würmer Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Wikispecies has information related to Polychaeta.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polychaeta.


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